Question: What is esophageal atresia?

Esophageal atresia is a birth defect of the swallowing tube (esophagus) that connects the mouth to the stomach. In a baby with esophageal atresia, the esophagus has two separate sections—the upper and lower esophagus—that do not connect.

What are the symptoms of esophageal atresia?

What are the symptoms of esophageal atresia?Bluish-colored skin when feeding.Choking, coughing or gagging when feeding.Foamy mucus in the mouth.Spitting up or drooling.Trouble breathing.31 Jan 2020

How do you fix esophageal atresia?

In most cases of tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair, the surgeon cuts through the abnormal connection (fistula) between the windpipe and esophagus and then sews together the two ends of the esophagus. The windpipe is also repaired.

What is the prognosis of esophageal atresia?

Although EA can be life-threatening in its most severe forms and could cause long-term nutritional concerns, the majority of children fully recover if its detected early. The best treatment for EA is usually surgery to reconnect the two ends of the babys esophagus to each other.

What is esophageal atresia Fistula?

Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a condition resulting from abnormal development before birth of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (the esophagus ).

What is the most common esophageal atresia?

Type C is the most common type. In this type the upper part of the esophagus has a closed end and the lower part of the esophagus is attached to the trachea, as is shown in the drawing. Type D is the rarest and most severe.

Can esophageal atresia detected ultrasound?

Ultrasound alone is a poor diagnostic tool for identifying esophageal atresia prenatally, and has a high rate of false positive diagnoses. Magnetic resonance imaging and amniotic fluid analysis have high diagnostic accuracy for esophageal atresia.

How many babies are born with esophageal atresia?

Researchers estimate that about 1 in every 4,100 babies is born with esophageal atresia in the United States. This birth defect can occur alone, but often occurs with other birth defects.

What happens after esophageal atresia surgery?

Most children need a breathing tube for several days after the operation and a drainage tube from the chest until at least a week after surgery, when doctors can be sure there are no leaks from the new connection in the esophagus. If things go well, babies may begin to feed by mouth about a week after surgery.

Is esophageal atresia genetic?

Esophageal atresia / tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) can occur as an isolated finding, as part of a genetic syndrome, or as part of a non-isolated (but not syndromic) set of findings. Most individuals with EA/TEF represent simplex cases (i.e., the only affected member of the family).

When does esophageal atresia occur?

At 4 to 8 weeks of pregnancy, a wall forms between the esophagus and trachea. This separates them into 2 tubes. TE fistula and esophageal atresia happen when this wall doesnt form as it should.

Why is polyhydramnios associated with esophageal atresia?

There may be excessive amniotic fluid during the pregnancy (polyhydramnios), with a small stomach, due to your babys inability to swallow amniotic fluid. A fetal ultrasound that shows too much amniotic fluid may be a sign of esophageal atresia or another blockage in the intestines.

Can polyhydramnios affect baby?

Most women with polyhydramnios will not have any significant problems during their pregnancy and will have a healthy baby. But there is a slightly increased risk of pregnancy and birth complications, such as: giving birth prematurely (before 37 weeks)

Can you eat with esophageal atresia?

Many children need to eat five or six small meals throughout the day after esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) repair. Aim for meals every three or four hours. Do not let mealtimes last more than 30 minutes.

What are the complications of esophageal atresia?

Late complications of EA/TEF include tracheomalacia, a recurrence of the TEF, esophageal stricture, and gastroesophageal reflux. These complications may lead to a brassy or honking-type cough, dysphagia, recurrent pneumonia, obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defects, and airway hyperreactivity.

Is TEF a birth defect?

While diagnosis of EA/TEF prenatally can be difficult, it is a congenital (forming before birth) anomaly that the Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment Center can sometimes detect.

Is polyhydramnios considered high risk?

Polyhydramnios is the term used to describe an excess accumulation of amniotic fluid. This clinical condition is associated with a high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes 1, 2, 3. The reported prevalence of polyhydramnios ranges from 0.2 to 1.6 % of all pregnancies 4, 5, 6, 7.

Does polyhydramnios mean C section?

Babies with polyhydramnios can be delivered vaginally. There is an increased risk, however, of the baby being in an abnormal position (not “presenting” head first) during delivery, a situation that may require a cesarean section. During labor, your doctor will be prepared for all complications or outcomes.

Is TEF curable?

For TEF, the primary goal of therapy is closure of fistula between digestive and respiratory fistulas. Most of the fistula cannot be approached surgically. Moreover, medication treatment is unable to cure the disease. The therapy of TEF is always a challenge in medicine.

Should I worry about polyhydramnios?

Is polyhydramnios dangerous for my baby? Most cases of polyhydramnios are mild and generally not dangerous. Theyre due to a gradual buildup of amniotic fluid in the second half of pregnancy. Rarely, polyhydramnios can cause complications.

What birth defects are associated with polyhydramnios?

Polyhydramnios is also associated with various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) and Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18), but only when the baby also has a duodenal atresia or other blockage in the gastrointestinal tract.

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